首页»Java WEB»史上最全最强SpringMVC详细示例实战教程

史上最全最强SpringMVC详细示例实战教程

来源:Sunnier 发布时间:2015-06-22 阅读次数:

 一、SpringMVC基础入门,创建一个HelloWorld程序

  1.首先,导入SpringMVC需要的jar包。

  2.添加Web.xml配置文件中关于SpringMVC的配置

  <!--configure the setting of springmvcDispatcherServlet and configure the mapping-->
  <servlet>
      <servlet-name>springmvc</servlet-name>
      <servlet-class>org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet</servlet-class>
      <init-param>
            <param-name>contextConfigLocation</param-name>
            <param-value>classpath:springmvc-servlet.xml</param-value>
        </init-param>
        <!-- <load-on-startup>1</load-on-startup> -->
  </servlet>

  <servlet-mapping>
      <servlet-name>springmvc</servlet-name>
      <url-pattern>/</url-pattern>
  </servlet-mapping>

  3.在src下添加springmvc-servlet.xml配置文件

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
    xmlns:mvc="http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc"
    xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/context http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context-4.1.xsd
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc/spring-mvc-4.1.xsd">                    

    <!-- scan the package and the sub package -->
    <context:component-scan base-package="test.SpringMVC"/>

    <!-- don't handle the static resource -->
    <mvc:default-servlet-handler />

    <!-- if you use annotation you must configure following setting -->
    <mvc:annotation-driven />
    
    <!-- configure the InternalResourceViewResolver -->
    <bean class="org.springframework.web.servlet.view.InternalResourceViewResolver" 
            id="internalResourceViewResolver">
        <!-- 前缀 -->
        <property name="prefix" value="/WEB-INF/jsp/" />
        <!-- 后缀 -->
        <property name="suffix" value=".jsp" />
    </bean>
</beans>

  4.在WEB-INF文件夹下创建名为jsp的文件夹,用来存放jsp视图。创建一个hello.jsp,在body中添加“Hello World”。

  5.建立包及Controller,如下所示

  6.编写Controller代码

@Controller
@RequestMapping("/mvc")
public class mvcController {

    @RequestMapping("/hello")
    public String hello(){        
        return "hello";
    }
}

  7.启动服务器,键入 http://localhost:8080/项目名/mvc/hello

 二、配置解析

  1.Dispatcherservlet

  DispatcherServlet是前置控制器,配置在web.xml文件中的。拦截匹配的请求,Servlet拦截匹配规则要自已定义,把拦截下来的请求,依据相应的规则分发到目标Controller来处理,是配置spring MVC的第一步。

  2.InternalResourceViewResolver

  视图名称解析器

  3.以上出现的注解

  @Controller 负责注册一个bean 到spring 上下文中

  @RequestMapping 注解为控制器指定可以处理哪些 URL 请求

 三、SpringMVC常用注解

  @Controller

  负责注册一个bean 到spring 上下文中

  @RequestMapping

  注解为控制器指定可以处理哪些 URL 请求

  @RequestBody

  该注解用于读取Request请求的body部分数据,使用系统默认配置的HttpMessageConverter进行解析,然后把相应的数据绑定到要返回的对象上 ,再把HttpMessageConverter返回的对象数据绑定到 controller中方法的参数上

  @ResponseBody

  该注解用于将Controller的方法返回的对象,通过适当的HttpMessageConverter转换为指定格式后,写入到Response对象的body数据区

  @ModelAttribute    

  在方法定义上使用 @ModelAttribute 注解:Spring MVC 在调用目标处理方法前,会先逐个调用在方法级上标注了@ModelAttribute 的方法

  在方法的入参前使用 @ModelAttribute 注解:可以从隐含对象中获取隐含的模型数据中获取对象,再将请求参数 –绑定到对象中,再传入入参将方法入参对象添加到模型中 

  @RequestParam 

  在处理方法入参处使用 @RequestParam 可以把请求参 数传递给请求方法

  @PathVariable

  绑定 URL 占位符到入参

  @ExceptionHandler

  注解到方法上,出现异常时会执行该方法

  @ControllerAdvice

  使一个Contoller成为全局的异常处理类,类中用@ExceptionHandler方法注解的方法可以处理所有Controller发生的异常

 四、自动匹配参数

  //match automatically
  @RequestMapping("/person")
  public String toPerson(String name,double age){
      System.out.println(name+" "+age);
      return "hello";
  }

 五、自动装箱

  1.编写一个Person实体类

package test.SpringMVC.model;

public class Person {
    public String getName() {
        return name;
    }
    public void setName(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }
    public int getAge() {
        return age;
    }
    public void setAge(int age) {
        this.age = age;
    }
    private String name;
    private int age;
    
}

  2.在Controller里编写方法

  //boxing automatically
  @RequestMapping("/person1")
  public String toPerson(Person p){
      System.out.println(p.getName()+" "+p.getAge());
      return "hello";
  }

 六、使用InitBinder来处理Date类型的参数

 //the parameter was converted in initBinder
 @RequestMapping("/date")
 public String date(Date date){
     System.out.println(date);
     return "hello";
 }
    
 //At the time of initialization,convert the type "String" to type "date"
 @InitBinder
 public void initBinder(ServletRequestDataBinder binder){
     binder.registerCustomEditor(Date.class, new CustomDateEditor(new SimpleDateFormat("yyyy-MM-dd"),
             true));
 }

 七、向前台传递参数

 //pass the parameters to front-end
 @RequestMapping("/show")
 public String showPerson(Map<String,Object> map){
     Person p =new Person();
     map.put("p", p);
     p.setAge(20);
     p.setName("jayjay");
     return "show";
 }

  前台可在Request域中取到"p"

 八、使用Ajax调用

 //pass the parameters to front-end using ajax
 @RequestMapping("/getPerson")
 public void getPerson(String name,PrintWriter pw){
     pw.write("hello,"+name);        
 }
 @RequestMapping("/name")
 public String sayHello(){
     return "name";
 }

  前台用下面的Jquery代码调用

 $(function(){
     $("#btn").click(function(){
        $.post("mvc/getPerson",{name:$("#name").val()},function(data){
             alert(data);
         });
     });
 });

 九、在Controller中使用redirect方式处理请求

  //redirect 
  @RequestMapping("/redirect")
  public String redirect(){
      return "redirect:hello";
  }

 十、文件上传

  1.需要导入两个jar包

  2.在SpringMVC配置文件中加入

  <!-- upload settings -->
  <bean id="multipartResolver"  class="org.springframework.web.multipart.commons.CommonsMultipartResolver">
      <property name="maxUploadSize" value="102400000"></property>
  </bean>

  3.方法代码

    @RequestMapping(value="/upload",method=RequestMethod.POST)
    public String upload(HttpServletRequest req) throws Exception{
        MultipartHttpServletRequest mreq = (MultipartHttpServletRequest)req;
        MultipartFile file = mreq.getFile("file");
        String fileName = file.getOriginalFilename();
        SimpleDateFormat sdf = new SimpleDateFormat("yyyyMMddHHmmss");        
        FileOutputStream fos = new FileOutputStream(req.getSession().getServletContext().getRealPath("/")+
                "upload/"+sdf.format(new Date())+fileName.substring(fileName.lastIndexOf('.')));
        fos.write(file.getBytes());
        fos.flush();
        fos.close();
        
        return "hello";
    }

  4.前台form表单

   <form action="mvc/upload" method="post" enctype="multipart/form-data">
       <input type="file" name="file"><br>
       <input type="submit" value="submit">
   </form>

 十一、使用@RequestParam注解指定参数的name

@Controller
@RequestMapping("/test")
public class mvcController1 {
    @RequestMapping(value="/param")
    public String testRequestParam(@RequestParam(value="id") Integer id,
            @RequestParam(value="name")String name){
        System.out.println(id+" "+name);
        return "/hello";
    }    
}

 十二、RESTFul风格的SringMVC

  1.RestController

@Controller
@RequestMapping("/rest")
public class RestController {
    @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.GET)
    public String get(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
        System.out.println("get"+id);
        return "/hello";
    }
    
    @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.POST)
    public String post(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
        System.out.println("post"+id);
        return "/hello";
    }
    
    @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.PUT)
    public String put(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
        System.out.println("put"+id);
        return "/hello";
    }
    
    @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.DELETE)
    public String delete(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
        System.out.println("delete"+id);
        return "/hello";
    }
    
}

  2.form表单发送put和delete请求

  在web.xml中配置

  <!-- configure the HiddenHttpMethodFilter,convert the post method to put or delete -->
  <filter>
      <filter-name>HiddenHttpMethodFilter</filter-name>
      <filter-class>org.springframework.web.filter.HiddenHttpMethodFilter</filter-class>
  </filter>
  <filter-mapping>
      <filter-name>HiddenHttpMethodFilter</filter-name>
      <url-pattern>/*</url-pattern>
  </filter-mapping>

  在前台可以用以下代码产生请求

    <form action="rest/user/1" method="post">
        <input type="hidden" name="_method" value="PUT">
        <input type="submit" value="put">
    </form>
    
    <form action="rest/user/1" method="post">
        <input type="submit" value="post">
    </form>
    
    <form action="rest/user/1" method="get">
        <input type="submit" value="get">
    </form>
    
    <form action="rest/user/1" method="post">
        <input type="hidden" name="_method" value="DELETE">
        <input type="submit" value="delete">
    </form>

 十三、返回json格式的字符串

  1.导入以下jar包

  2.方法代码

@Controller
@RequestMapping("/json")
public class jsonController {
    
    @ResponseBody
    @RequestMapping("/user")
    public  User get(){
        User u = new User();
        u.setId(1);
        u.setName("jayjay");
        u.setBirth(new Date());
        return u;
    }
}

 十四、异常的处理

  1.处理局部异常(Controller内)

 @ExceptionHandler
 public ModelAndView exceptionHandler(Exception ex){
     ModelAndView mv = new ModelAndView("error");
     mv.addObject("exception", ex);
     System.out.println("in testExceptionHandler");
     return mv;
 }
    
 @RequestMapping("/error")
 public String error(){
     int i = 5/0;
     return "hello";
 }

  2.处理全局异常(所有Controller)

@ControllerAdvice
public class testControllerAdvice {
    @ExceptionHandler
    public ModelAndView exceptionHandler(Exception ex){
        ModelAndView mv = new ModelAndView("error");
        mv.addObject("exception", ex);
        System.out.println("in testControllerAdvice");
        return mv;
    }
}

  3.另一种处理全局异常的方法

  在SpringMVC配置文件中配置

  <!-- configure SimpleMappingExceptionResolver -->
  <bean class="org.springframework.web.servlet.handler.SimpleMappingExceptionResolver">
      <property name="exceptionMappings">
          <props>
              <prop key="java.lang.ArithmeticException">error</prop>
          </props>
      </property>
  </bean>

  error是出错页面

 十五、设置一个自定义拦截器

  1.创建一个MyInterceptor类,并实现HandlerInterceptor接口

public class MyInterceptor implements HandlerInterceptor {

    @Override
    public void afterCompletion(HttpServletRequest arg0,
            HttpServletResponse arg1, Object arg2, Exception arg3)
            throws Exception {
        System.out.println("afterCompletion");
    }

    @Override
    public void postHandle(HttpServletRequest arg0, HttpServletResponse arg1,
            Object arg2, ModelAndView arg3) throws Exception {
        System.out.println("postHandle");
    }

    @Override
    public boolean preHandle(HttpServletRequest arg0, HttpServletResponse arg1,
            Object arg2) throws Exception {
        System.out.println("preHandle");
        return true;
    }

}

  2.在SpringMVC的配置文件中配置

    <!-- interceptor setting -->
    <mvc:interceptors>
        <mvc:interceptor>
            <mvc:mapping path="/mvc/**"/>
            <bean class="test.SpringMVC.Interceptor.MyInterceptor"></bean>
        </mvc:interceptor>        
    </mvc:interceptors>

  3.拦截器执行顺序

 十六、表单的验证(使用Hibernate-validate)及国际化

  1.导入Hibernate-validate需要的jar包

(未选中不用导入)

  2.编写实体类User并加上验证注解

public class User {
    public int getId() {
        return id;
    }
    public void setId(int id) {
        this.id = id;
    }
    public String getName() {
        return name;
    }
    public void setName(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }
    public Date getBirth() {
        return birth;
    }
    public void setBirth(Date birth) {
        this.birth = birth;
    }
    @Override
    public String toString() {
        return "User [id=" + id + ", name=" + name + ", birth=" + birth + "]";
    }    
    private int id;
    @NotEmpty
    private String name;

    @Past
    @DateTimeFormat(pattern="yyyy-MM-dd")
    private Date birth;
}

  ps:@Past表示时间必须是一个过去值

  3.在jsp中使用SpringMVC的form表单

    <form:form action="form/add" method="post" modelAttribute="user">
        id:<form:input path="id"/><form:errors path="id"/><br>
        name:<form:input path="name"/><form:errors path="name"/><br>
        birth:<form:input path="birth"/><form:errors path="birth"/>
        <input type="submit" value="submit">
    </form:form> 

  ps:path对应name

  4.Controller中代码

@Controller
@RequestMapping("/form")
public class formController {
    @RequestMapping(value="/add",method=RequestMethod.POST)    
    public String add(@Valid User u,BindingResult br){
        if(br.getErrorCount()>0){            
            return "addUser";
        }
        return "showUser";
    }
    
    @RequestMapping(value="/add",method=RequestMethod.GET)
    public String add(Map<String,Object> map){
        map.put("user",new User());
        return "addUser";
    }
}

  ps:

  1.因为jsp中使用了modelAttribute属性,所以必须在request域中有一个"user".

  [email protected] 表示按照在实体上标记的注解验证参数

  3.返回到原页面错误信息回回显,表单也会回显

  5.错误信息自定义

  在src目录下添加locale.properties

NotEmpty.user.name=name can't not be empty
Past.user.birth=birth should be a past value
DateTimeFormat.user.birth=the format of input is wrong
typeMismatch.user.birth=the format of input is wrong
typeMismatch.user.id=the format of input is wrong

  在SpringMVC配置文件中配置

    <!-- configure the locale resource -->
    <bean id="messageSource" class="org.springframework.context.support.ResourceBundleMessageSource">
        <property name="basename" value="locale"></property>
    </bean>

  6.国际化显示

  在src下添加locale_zh_CN.properties

username=账号
password=密码

  locale.properties中添加

username=user name
password=password

  创建一个locale.jsp

  <body>
    <fmt:message key="username"></fmt:message>
    <fmt:message key="password"></fmt:message>
  </body>

  在SpringMVC中配置

    <!-- make the jsp page can be visited -->
    <mvc:view-controller path="/locale" view-name="locale"/>

  让locale.jsp在WEB-INF下也能直接访问

  最后,访问locale.jsp,切换浏览器语言,能看到账号和密码的语言也切换了

 十七、压轴大戏--整合SpringIOC和SpringMVC

  1.创建一个test.SpringMVC.integrate的包用来演示整合,并创建各类

  2.User实体类

public class User {
    public int getId() {
        return id;
    }
    public void setId(int id) {
        this.id = id;
    }
    public String getName() {
        return name;
    }
    public void setName(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }
    public Date getBirth() {
        return birth;
    }
    public void setBirth(Date birth) {
        this.birth = birth;
    }
    @Override
    public String toString() {
        return "User [id=" + id + ", name=" + name + ", birth=" + birth + "]";
    }    
    private int id;
    @NotEmpty
    private String name;

    @Past
    @DateTimeFormat(pattern="yyyy-MM-dd")
    private Date birth;
}

  3.UserService类

@Component
public class UserService {
    public UserService(){
        System.out.println("UserService Constructor...\n\n\n\n\n\n");
    }
    
    public void save(){
        System.out.println("save");
    }
}

  4.UserController

@Controller
@RequestMapping("/integrate")
public class UserController {
    @Autowired
    private UserService userService;
    
    @RequestMapping("/user")
    public String saveUser(@RequestBody @ModelAttribute User u){
        System.out.println(u);
        userService.save();
        return "hello";
    }
}

  5.Spring配置文件

  在src目录下创建SpringIOC的配置文件applicationContext.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans  
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd 
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/util 
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/util/spring-util-4.0.xsd
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/context
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context.xsd
        "
        xmlns:util="http://www.springframework.org/schema/util"
        xmlns:p="http://www.springframework.org/schema/p"
        xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"    
        >
    <context:component-scan base-package="test.SpringMVC.integrate">
        <context:exclude-filter type="annotation" 
            expression="org.springframework.stereotype.Controller"/>
        <context:exclude-filter type="annotation" 
            expression="org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ControllerAdvice"/>        
    </context:component-scan>
    
</beans>

  在Web.xml中添加配置

  <!-- configure the springIOC -->
  <listener>
      <listener-class>org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoaderListener</listener-class>
  </listener>
  <context-param>  
    <param-name>contextConfigLocation</param-name>  
    <param-value>classpath:applicationContext.xml</param-value>
  </context-param>

  6.在SpringMVC中进行一些配置,防止SpringMVC和SpringIOC对同一个对象的管理重合

<!-- scan the package and the sub package -->
    <context:component-scan base-package="test.SpringMVC.integrate">
        <context:include-filter type="annotation" 
            expression="org.springframework.stereotype.Controller"/>
        <context:include-filter type="annotation" 
            expression="org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ControllerAdvice"/>
    </context:component-scan>

 十八、SpringMVC详细运行流程图

 十九、SpringMVC与struts2的区别

  1、springmvc基于方法开发的,struts2基于类开发的。springmvc将url和controller里的方法映射。映射成功后springmvc生成一个Handler对象,对象中只包括了一个method。方法执行结束,形参数据销毁。springmvc的controller开发类似web service开发。

  2、springmvc可以进行单例开发,并且建议使用单例开发,struts2通过类的成员变量接收参数,无法使用单例,只能使用多例。

  3、经过实际测试,struts2速度慢,在于使用struts标签,如果使用struts建议使用jstl。

QQ群:凯发娱乐官网官方群(515171538),验证消息:10000
微信群:加小编微信 849023636 邀请您加入,验证消息:10000
提示:更多精彩内容关注微信公众号:全栈开发者中心(fsder-com)
188bet uedbet 威廉希尔 明升 bwin 明升88 bodog bwin 明升m88.com 18luck 188bet unibet unibet Ladbrokes Ladbrokes casino m88明升 明升 明升 m88.com 188bet m88 明陞 uedbet赫塔菲官网 365bet官网 m88 help
188bet www.188bet.com bwin 平博 unibet 明升 188bet uk Ladbrokes 德赢vwin 188bet m88.com w88 平博88 uedbet体育 188bet 188bet 威廉希尔 明升体育app 平博88 M88 Games vwin德赢 uedbet官网 bodog fun88 188bet
网友评论(共4条评论) 正在载入评论......
理智评论文明上网,拒绝恶意谩骂 发表评论 / 共4条评论
登录会员中心